Goal 14: Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development

Goal 14: Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development

The world's oceans - their temperatures, their chemical composition, their currents and their life - influence the global systems that make the Earth a livable place for mankind.
Rainwater, the water we drink, the weather, the climate, our coasts, much of our food and even the oxygen in the air we breathe are ultimately supplied and regulated by the sea.

Throughout history, the oceans and seas have been and continue to be vital conduits for trade and transportation.

Careful management of this fundamental global resource is the foundation of a sustainable future.

Facts and figures

  • The oceans cover three quarters of the earth's surface, contain 97% of the water present on Earth and represent 99% of space, in terms of volume, occupied on the planet by living organisms
  • More than 3 billion people depend on marine and coastal biodiversity for their livelihoods
  • Globally, the estimated market value of marine and coastal industries and resources is $3 trillion annually, or approximately 5% of global GDP
  • Oceans contain approximately 200,000 identified species, but actual numbers could be in the millions
  • Oceans absorb about 30% of carbon dioxide produced by humans, thus mitigating the impact of global warming on Earth
  • Oceans are the world's largest protein reservoir, with more than 3 billion people relying on the oceans for their primary protein source
  • Marine fisheries employ, directly or indirectly, more than 200 million people
  • Fishing subsidies are contributing to the rapid depletion of many fish species, and are impeding actions to save and restore global fish stocks and related jobs, driving ocean fisheries to produce US$50 billion annually less than their potential
  • The 40% of the world's oceans are heavily influenced by human activities, the impact of which includes pollution, depletion of fish stocks and loss of natural habitats along coasts.


14.1 By 2025, prevent and significantly reduce all forms of marine pollution, especially pollution from land-based activities, including pollution by marine debris and nutrients

14.2 By 2020, sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems to avoid particularly adverse impacts, including by strengthening their resilience, and take action to restore them so that oceans are healthy and productive

14.3 Minimize and address the effects of ocean acidification, including through enhanced scientific collaboration at all levels

14.4 By 2020, effectively regulate fisheries and end overfishing, illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and destructive fishing methods. Implement science-based management plans, so as to restore fish stocks in the shortest possible time, bringing them back at least to levels that produce the maximum sustainable yield, as determined by their biological characteristics

14.5 By 2020, conserve at least 10% of coastal and marine areas, in accordance with national and international law and based on the most accurate scientific information available

14.6 By 2020, prohibit those forms of fisheries subsidies that contribute to overcapacity and overfishing, eliminate subsidies that contribute to illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing, and refrain from reintroducing such subsidies, recognizing that special treatment and differentiated for developing and least developed countries that is appropriate and effective, should be an integral part of the World Trade Organization fisheries subsidy negotiations

14.7 By 2030, enhance the economic benefits of small island developing States and least developed countries through more sustainable use of marine resources, including sustainable management of fisheries, aquaculture and tourism

14.a Increase scientific knowledge, develop research capacity and transmission of marine technology, taking into account the criteria and guidelines of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission on the Transfer of Marine Technology, with the aim of improving ocean health and to increase the contribution of marine biodiversity to the development of emerging countries, especially small island developing states and least developed countries

14.b Provide access for small artisanal fishermen to marine resources and markets

14.c Enhance the conservation and sustainable use of the oceans and their resources by applying international law, as set out in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, which provides the legal framework for the conservation and sustainable use of the oceans and their resources, as referred to in paragraph 158 of "The future we want"

Obiettivo 14Conservare e utilizzare in modo durevole gli oceani, i mari e le risorse marine per uno sviluppo sostenibile.