Goal 10: Reduce inequality within and between nations

Goal 10: Reduce inequality within and between nations.

The international community has made significant progress in lifting people out of poverty. The most vulnerable nations – least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing states – continue to make inroads to reduce poverty. However, inequality persists and large disparities in access to health, education and other services remain.

Furthermore, while income inequality between countries appears to have decreased, inequality within countries has increased.

There is a growing consensus that economic growth is not enough to reduce poverty if it is not inclusive growth and if it does not involve the three dimensions of sustainable development – economic, social and environmental.

To reduce inequality, policies should be universal and pay attention to the needs of disadvantaged and marginalized populations.

Facts and figures

  • On average – and taking into account population size – between 1990 and 2010, income inequality increased by 11% in developing countries
  • Most households in developing countries – more than 75% of the population – live in societies where income is less evenly distributed than in the 1990s
  • It has been demonstrated that, beyond a certain threshold, inequality damages economic growth and the reduction of poverty, the quality of relations in the public and political spheres and the individual's sense of satisfaction and self-esteem.
  • There is nothing inevitable about growing income inequality; several countries have managed to contain or reduce income inequality, achieving high levels of growth
  • Income inequality cannot be tackled effectively if the underlying inequality of opportunity is not addressed
  • In a global survey conducted by the United Nations Development Programme, policy makers around the world have found that inequality in their countries is generally high and poses a potential threat to long-term social and economic development
  • Data from developing countries show that children in the poorest 20% population are up to three times more likely to die before the age of five than children from more affluent families
  • Social protection has been significantly expanded globally, yet people with disabilities are up to five times more likely to face catastrophic healthcare costs
  • Despite an overall decline in infant mortality in most developing countries, rural women are up to three times more likely to die in childbirth than urban women.


10.1 By 2030, progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the 40% of the population in the lowest social stratum at a rate higher than the national average

10.2 By 2030, empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all, regardless of age, gender, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion, economic or other status

10.3 Ensure equal opportunities and reduce inequalities in outcomes, including by eliminating discriminatory laws, policies and practices and promoting appropriate legislation, policies and actions in this regard

10.4 Adopt policies, in particular fiscal, wage and social protection policies, to progressively achieve greater equality

10.5 Improve the regulation and monitoring of global financial institutions and markets and strengthen the implementation of these rules

10.6 Ensure better representation that gives developing countries a voice in decision-making institutions on the global and international economy and finance, to create more effective, credible, accountable and empowered institutions

10.7 Make the migration and mobility of people more orderly, safe, regular and accountable, including by implementing well-managed and planned migration policies

10.a Implement the principle of special and differential treatment of developing countries, in particular the least developed, in accordance with the agreements of the World Trade Organization

10.b Encourage official development assistance and financial flows, including foreign direct investment, to states most in need, especially least developed countries, African countries, small island developing States and developing countries of landlocked development, in accordance with their national plans and programmes

10.c By 2030, reduce transaction costs of migrant remittances to less than 3% and eliminate remittance corridors with costs above 5%

Obiettivo 10Ridurre l’ineguaglianza all’interno di e fra le Nazioni.